Friday, 25 July 2008

Salvador de Bahia - Information

Salvador, Bahia
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This article is about the Brazilian city. For other names including "Salvador", see Salvador, San Salvador and São Salvador.
Salvador
Downtown Salvador as seen from the sea
Flag
Seal
Nickname(s): Capital da Alegria (Capital of happiness)
Motto: Sic illa ad arcam reversa est (And thus the dove returned to the ark)
Location of Salvador
Country
Brazil
State
Bahia
Founded
March 29, 1549
Government
- Mayor
João Henrique Carneiro (PMDB)
Area
- Total
706 km² (272.6 sq mi)
Elevation
8 m (26 ft)
Population (2007)
- Total
2.892.625
- Density
3,840/km² (9,945.6/sq mi)
Time zone
UTC-3 (UTC)
Postal Code
40000-000
HDI (2000)
0.805 – high
Website: Salvador, Bahia

Downtown Salvador port from sea.
Salvador (historic name, São Salvador da Baía de Todos os Santos, in English: "Holy Savior of All Saints' Bay") is a city on the northeast coast of Brazil and the capital of the Northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia. Salvador is also known as Brazil's capital of happiness due to its easygoing population and countless popular outdoor parties, including its street carnival. The first colonial capital of Brazil, the city is one of the oldest in the country and in the New World; for a long time, it was also known as Bahia, and appears under that name (or as Salvador da Bahia, Salvador of Bahia so as to differentiate it from other Brazilian cities of the same name) on many maps and books from before the mid-20th century. Salvador is the third most populous Brazilian city, after São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, and it is the eighth most populous city in Latin America, after Mexico City, São Paulo, Buenos Aires, Lima, Bogotá, Rio de Janeiro and Santiago, Chile.
The city of Salvador is notable in Brazil for its cuisine, music and architecture, and its metropolitan area is the wealthiest in the northeastern region of the country. Over 80% of the population of metropolitan region of Salvador is of Black African origin, and African influence in many cultural aspects of the city makes it the center of Afro-Brazilian culture. The historical center of Salvador, frequently called the Pelourinho, is rich in historical monuments dating from the 17th through the 19th centuries and has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985.
Salvador is located on a small, roughly triangular peninsula that separates Todos os Santos Bay from the open waters of the Atlantic Ocean. The bay, which gets its name from having been discovered on All Saints' Day forms a natural harbor. Salvador is a major export port, lying at the heart of the Recôncavo Baiano, a rich agricultural and industrial region encompassing the northern portion of coastal Bahia. The local terrain is diverse ranging from flat to rolling to hills and low mountains.
A particularly notable feature is the escarpment that divides Salvador into the Cidade Alta ("Upper Town") and the Cidade Baixa ("Lower Town"), the former some 85 m (275 ft) above the latter,[1] with the city's cathedral and most administrative buildings standing on the higher ground. An elevator (the first installed in Brazil), known as Elevador Lacerda has connected the two sections since 1873, having since undergone several upgrades.
The Deputado Luís Eduardo Magalhães International Airport connects Salvador with Brazilian cities and also operates international flights, and the city is home to the Federal University of Bahia.
Contents[hide]
1 Geography
1.1 Climate
1.2 Vegetation
2 History
3 Toponymy
3.1 City government
4 Demographics
4.1 Religion
5 Economy
6 Tourism and recreation
7 Education
7.1 Educational institutions
8 Historic Centre
9 Culture
9.1 Literature
9.2 Religion
9.3 Cuisine
9.4 Capoeira
9.5 Museums
9.6 Carnival/Carnaval
9.7 Funk and Bahia Funk Dances
9.8 Theatre
10 Human Rights & Gay Rights
11 Infrastructure
11.1 International Airport
11.2 Port
11.3 Metro
11.4 Highways
11.5 Distances
12 Neighborhoods
13 Sports
14 Human Development
15 Notable people
16 Sister cities
17 References
18 External links
18.1 Official
18.2 Education
//

[edit] Geography

[edit] Climate
Climate chart for Salvador
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D


43

30
24


58

30
24


106

30
24


191

29
24


187

28
23


168

27
22


143

26
22


99

26
22


73

27
22


70

28
23


74

29
23


69

30
24
temperatures in °Cprecipitation totals in mmsource: MSN Weather
Imperial conversion[show]

J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D


1.7

86
75


2.3

86
75


4.2

86
75


7.5

84
75


7.4

82
73


6.6

81
72


5.6

79
72


3.9

79
72


2.9

81
72


2.8

82
73


2.9

84
73


2.7

86
75
temperatures in °Fprecipitation totals in inches
Months
Air
Humidity
(%)
Medium
Temperature
(°C)
January
80
26.5
July
83
23.5
Annual
81
25
Salvador has a typical tropical climate, with warm to hot temperatures and high relative humidity throughout the year. However, these conditions are relieved by a near absence of extreme temperatures and pleasant trade winds blowing from the ocean. March is the warmest month, with a mean maximum temperature of 30°C (86°F) and minimum of 24°C (75°F); July experiences the coolest temperatures, with means of 26°C (79°F) and 19°C (68°F). The absolute maximum and minimum are respectively 38°C (100°F) and 12°C (54°F).
Unlike the terrain further inland (known as the sertão), rainfall in Salvador is quite abundant, with a total yearly average of 201cm (83"), being heaviest in May at 33cm (12.8") and generally tapering off until reaching a low of 11cm (4.4") in January. Tropical cyclones and tornadoes are unknown in this area[2][3], on February 12, 2008 a small F0 was formed in the ocean, near by Rio Vermelho neighborhood, creating a little waterspout.[4]
The coastline is quite diverse, featuring sandy beaches, sea cliffs, mangrove swamps, and a number of islands, the largest of which, Itaparica, includes a resort area.

[edit] Vegetation
Salvador is located in a region of tropical rainforests. The rainforests of Bahia are characterized by high levels of precipitation, and the normal annual rainfall is between 2,000 mm (about 78 inches) and 1700 mm (about 67 inches). As a result of region's climate, Salvador and the surrounding region support quite a diverse selection of topical plants.
There are several common characteristics of tropical rainforest trees. Tropical rainforest species frequently possess one or more attributes not commonly seen in trees of higher latitudes or trees in drier conditions on the same latitude.

[edit] History

Market (Mercado Modelo) by the bay.

First Coat of Arms of the city of Salvador, about late XVI century.
Baía de Todos os Santos (All Saints Bay) was first encountered by Europeans and christened in 1502. In 1510, a ship, containing the Portuguese settler Caramuru, wrecked near the borough of Rio Vermelho. In 1534, Francisco Pereira Coutinho founded a town near Barra borough, called Vila Velha, Portuguese for "Old town". In 1549, a fleet of Portuguese settlers headed by Tomé de Sousa, the first Governor-General of Brazil, established Salvador. Built on a high cliff overlooking All Saints bay as the first colonial capital of colonial Brazil, it quickly became its main sea port and an important center of the sugar industry and the slave trade. Salvador was divided into an upper and a lower city, the upper city was the administrative and main religious area and it was where the majority of the population lived. The lower city was the financial center, with a port and market. In the late 19th Century, funiculars and an elevator, the Elevador Lacerda, were built to link the areas.
The city became the seat of the first Catholic bishop of Brazil in 1552, and is still a center of Brazilian Catholicism. By 1583, there were 1,600 people residing in the city, and it quickly grew into one of the largest cities in the New World, surpassing any colonial American city at the time of the American Revolution in 1776.
Salvador was the capital city of the Portuguese viceroyalty of Grão-Pará and its province of Bahia de Todos os Santos. The Dutch Republic captured and sacked the city in May of 1624, and held it along with other north east ports until it was re-taken by the Portuguese in April of the following year.
Salvador was the first capital of Brazil and remained so until 1763, when it was succeeded by Rio de Janeiro. The city became a base for the Brazilian independence movement and was attacked by Portuguese troops in 1812, before being liberated on July 2, 1823. It settled into graceful decline over the next 150 years, out of the mainstream of Brazilian industrialization. It remains, however, a national cultural and tourist center.
By 1948 the city had some 340,000 people, and was already Brazil's fourth largest city. By 1991 the population was 2.08 million.

In 2006, Salvador was the 2nd most visited city by international tourists in Brazil, Rio de Janeiro is the 1st.[5]
In the 1990s, a major city project cleaned up and restored the old downtown area, the Pelourinho, or Centro Historico ("Historical Center"). Now, the Pelourinho is a cultural center, and the very heart of Salvador. Nonetheless, this social prophylaxis resulted in the forced removal of thousands of working class residents to the city's periphery where they have encountered significant economic hardship. Additionally, the Historical Center is now something of a depopulated architectural jewel who's "animation" must be brought in and sponsored by local shopowners and the Bahian state. Similar situations may be found in many UNESCO World Heritage Sites today but the Pelourinho, in light of Salvador's economic inequalities and ruling governmental coalition's of the 1990s, seems to have gone farther than most in sacrificing its population to the needs of tourist-based preservation.
Salvador has been the birthplace of many noted Brazilians, including musicians such as song-writer Dorival Caymmi, Música Popular Brasileira (MPB or Brazilian Popular Music) star Gal Costa, and Grammy Award winner Gilberto Gil. Gil later went on to serve as a city council member (vereador) and is the Brazilian Minister of Culture in the cabinet of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. Also internationally recognized are the city's Blocos Afros, such as Olodum, Ara Ketu, and Ilê Aiyê. Notable writers associated with Salvador include Jorge Amado, considered one of Brazil's greatest authors and fabulists, and João Ubaldo Ribeiro. The famous Brazilian visual artist Carybé is based in Salvador as well. Celebrities born in Salvador include supermodel Adriana Lima.

[edit] Toponymy

Salvador City Hall.
The city's name, São Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos, is the Portuguese for "Saint Savior of All Saints' Bay". The city was, for a long time, known as "Bahia" (bay), passing this name to all the lands near it, naming the state of Bahia. The city is also known as "Roma Negra", Portuguese for "Black Rome", because it is said that Salvador da Bahia has 365 churches, and it is a center of Candomblé, an African-derived, syncretic New World religion.
Salvador's other nickname is "Capital da Alegria" or "Capital of Joy", because of its large carnival.

Old Municipality of Salvador.

[edit] City government
Brazil's first governor Thomé de Souza lived in Salvador from 1549, and the building in which he resided was also the administrative center for the Kingdom of Portugal during its temporary relocation to Brazil during the Peninsular War. The building was rededicated in 1919, when it was given its present name: Rio Branco Palace. Today, it is the home of the Pedro Calmon Foundation of the State of Bahia and the Governor's Memorial.
Salvador is governed by a prefeito (mayor). The mayor (since 2005) is João Henrique Carneiro, of the PMDB party. The city also has a body of 41 vereadores (municipal deputies), who meet in the Camara Municipal de Salvador. The Municipal Chambers is a historical structure built approximately 1660.

[edit] Demographics

African-Brazilians make up the majority of the population in Salvador.
According to the IBGE of 2007, there were 3,416,000 people residing in the Metropolitan Region of Salvador. The population density was 6,422 inh./km². The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census revealed the following numbers: 1,875,384 Brown people (54.9%), 970,000 Black people (28.4%), 532,000 White people (15.6%), 34,000 Asian or Amerindian people (1.0%).[6]
Most of the population is in part descended from Black African slaves, who were mainly Yoruba speakers from Nigeria, Ghana, Togo and Benin.[7]

[edit] Religion
Religion
Percentage
Number
Catholic
60.54%
1,479,101
No religion
18.14%
443,236
Protestant
13.29%
324,785
Kardecist
2.53%
61,833
Source: IBGE 2000.[8]

[edit] Economy

Fort of Nossa Senhora do Pópulo e São Marcelo.

Historic Centre in the morning.

Convent and Church of São Francisco in Historic Centre.
Salvador is the second most popular tourist destination in Brazil. Tourism and cultural activity are important generators of jobs and income, boosting the arts and the preservation of artistic and cultural heritage. Chief among the points of interest are its famous Pelourinho (named after the colonial pillories that once stood there) district, its magnificent historic churches, and its beaches. Salvador's tourism infrastructure is considered one of the most modern in Brazil, especially in terms of lodging. The city offers accommodation to suit all tastes and standards, from youth hostels to international hotels. The Civil engineering is one of the most important segments of the city, many international (mainly: Spain, Portugal and England)[9] and national companies are acting in the city and bahian littoral zone.
Ford Motor Company has a plant in the Metropolitan Region of Salvador, in the city of Camaçari, assembling the Ford EcoSport and Ford Fiesta.
In December 2001, Monsanto Company inaugurated, at the Petrochemical Pole of Camaçari, in Metropolitan Region of Salvador, the first plant of the company designed to produce raw materials for the herbicide Roundup in South America. The investment is equivalent to US$ 500 millions; US$ 350 millions were spent in this initial phase. The Camaçari Plant, the largest unit of Monsanto installed out of the United States, is also the only Monsanto plant manufacturing raw materials for the Roundup production line. The company started the civil works for the new plant in January 2000.
The area of the unit is 631,000 square meters, including 200,000 square meters of constructed area. Upon completion of the two phases, it will employ 1,400 people, including direct (350) and indirect (1050) employments. With this plant in operation, Monsanto now contributes US$ 300 million to the Brazilian economy, avoiding the importation of U$ 150 million of raw materials.
The GDP for the city was R$ 22,145,303,000 (2005).[10]
The per capita income for the city was R$ 8,283 (2005).[11]
Evolution of the GDP and the per capita GDP of Salvador
Years
GDP(in reais)
GDP per capita(in reais)
2002
16,463,298,000
6,464
2003
16,929,310,000
6,541
2004
19,887,968,000
7,557
2005
22,145,303,000
8,283

[edit] Tourism and recreation

Ondina Beach.
The Salvador coastline is one of the longest for cities in Brazil. There are 50 km (31 mi) of beaches distributed between the High City and the Low City, from Inema, in the railroad suburb to the Praia do Flamengo, on the other side of town. While the Low City beaches are bordered by the waters of the All Saints Bay (the country’s most extensive bay), the High City beaches, from Farol da Barra to Flamengo, are bordered by the Atlantic Ocean. The exception is Porto da Barra, the only High City beach located in the All Saints Bay. The big hotels tend to be strung out along the orla (Atlantic seafront). Then you've got smaller hotels in Barra and Porto da Barra, others (generally less expensive) scattered along the principal thoroughfare of Avenida Sete de Setembro (shortened to "Avenida Sete" by the locals), and still others (usually inexpensive) in and around Pelourinho. If you're shopping for the bottom end of the spectrum in this area you have to be careful; some of these hotels are "by the hour" with all that that entails.
There are also pousadas (guesthouses, or bed & breakfasts) in Barra, Pelourinho, and Santo Antônio (and other places as well, to be sure), and hostels (albergues) which are for the most part located in Pelourinho (though a lot of the "pousadas" in Barra are hostels as well).
The capital's beaches range from calm inlets, ideal for swimming, sailing, diving and underwater fishing, as well as open sea inlets with strong waves, sought by surfers. There are also beaches surrounded by reefs, forming natural pools of stone, ideal for children.

Lacerda Elevator and Model Market in Historic Centre.
Interesting places to visit near Salvador include:
According to The Guardian, in 2007, Porto da Barra Beach was the 3rd best in the world.[12]
The large island of Itaparica in the Bay of All Saints - can be visited either by a car-ferry, or a smaller foot-passenger ferry which leaves from near the Mercado Modelo near the Lacerda Elevator.
Linha Verde, or "green line" of towns and cities, with exquisite beaches, north of Salvador heading towards Sergipe state
Cachoeira in the recôncavo region - 2 hours by bus: a great centre of Candomblé with a pousada (inn) in the convent there.
Morro de São Paulo in the Valença region across the Bay of All Saints - a lively island which can be reached by ferry from Salvador (1 hr), by plane, or by bus to Valença and then by 'Rapido' ('fast') speedboat or smaller ferry.
Among its attractions, those deserving of special attention include the Lacerda Elevator, City Hall and Pelourinho.

[edit] Education

Salvador is the most important educational centre of the state.
Portuguese language is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. But English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum.

[edit] Educational institutions
The city has several universities:
Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA) (Federal University of Bahia);
Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB) (University of Bahia State);
Universidade Católica do Salvador (UCSal) (Catholic University of Salvador);
Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS) (Salvador University);
Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciências (College of Technology and Science);
Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica da Bahia (Cefet-BA);
Faculdade Ruy Barbosa (FRB) (Ruy Barbosa College);
and many others.

[edit] Historic Centre
Historic Centre of Salvador de Bahia*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

State Party
Brazil
Type
Cultural
Criteria
iv, vi
Reference
309
Region**
Latin America and the Caribbean
Inscription history
Inscription
1985 (9th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.** Region as classified by UNESCO.
The Historic Centre of Salvador was designated in 1985 a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The city represents a fine example of 16th century urbanism with its higher administrative town and its lower commercial town, and a large portion of the city has retained the old character of its streets and colourful houses.
As the first capital of Portuguese America, Salvador cultivated slave labor and had its "pelourinhos" [pillories] installed in open places like the terreiro de Jesus and the squares know today as Thomé de Souza and Castro Alves. A "pelourinho" was a symbol of authority and justice,for some, and lashings and injustice for the majority. The one erected for a short time in what is now the Historical Center, and later moved to what is now the Praca da Piedade, ended up lending its name to the historical and architectural complex of Pelourinho, part of the city's historical center.
Since 1992, the Pelourinho neighborhood has been subject to a nearly US$ 100 million "restoration" that has led to the rebuilding of hundreds of buildings' facades and the expulsion of the vast majority of the neighborhood's Afro-descendent populace. This process has given rise to substantial political debate in Bahia since the Pelourinho's former residents have been for the most part excluded from the renovation's economic benefits (reaped by a few).
Salvador's considerable wealth and status during colonial times (as capital of the colony during 250 years and which gave rise to the Pelourinho) is reflected in the magnificence of its colonial palaces, churches and convents, most of them dating from the 17th and 18th centuries. These include:
Cathedral of Salvador: Former Jesuit church of the city, built in the second half of the 17th century. Fine example of Mannerist architecture and decoration.
Convent and Church of São Francisco: Franciscan convent and church dating from the first half of the 18th century. The Baroque decoration of the church is among the finest in Brazil.
Church of Nosso Senhor do Bonfim: Rococo church with Neoclassical inner decoration. The image of Nosso Senhor do Bonfim is the most venerated in the city, and the Feast of Our Lord of Good Ending (Festa de Nosso Senhor do Bonfim) in January is the most important in the city after Carnival.

Historic Centre of Salvador.
Mercado Modelo: In 1861, at the Cayrú Square, the Customs Building was constructed, with a rotunda (large circular room with a domed ceiling) at the back end, where ships anchored to unload their merchandise. In 1971, a market began to operate in the Customs Building, and thirteen years later, it caught fire, burned down, and underwent reform. Today, there are 200 stands with a variety of arts and crafts made in Bahia as well as other states in northeastern region of Brazil, two restaurants, and several bars that serve typical drinks and appetizers.
Elevador Lacerda: Inaugurated in 1873, this elevator was planned and built by the businessman Antônio Francisco de Lacerda, The four elevator cages connect the 72 meters between the Thomé de Souza Square in the upper city, and the Cayru Square in the lower city. In each run, which lasts for 22 seconds, the elevator transports 128 persons, 24 hours a day.

[edit] Culture
Its rich, historical and cultural aspects were inherited by the miscigenation of such ethnic groups as Native-Indian, African, and European. This mixture can be seen in the religion, golden cuisine, cultural manifestations, and customs of Bahia's joyful, hospitable people. These unique characteristics arouse curiosity in everyone's minds.

[edit] Literature

Historic Centre in the afternoon.
As the capital of colonial Brazil until 1763, Salvador was an important cultural centre since the 16th century, as reflected in the large number of prominent literary figures associated with colonial Salvador, usually educated in the religious schools of the convents of the city and in the University of Coimbra in Portugal. Frei Vicente do Salvador (1564-1635), a Bahia-born Franciscan friar who studied in the Jesuit School of Salvador, was the author of the first book on Brazilian history written by a Brazil-born author.

Isometric view of the Salvador Bahia Pelourinho's Anchieta Plaza, cut from a Laser Scan.
Gregório de Mattos, born in Salvador in 1636, was also educated by the Jesuits. He became the most important Baroque poet in colonial Brazil for his religious and satirical works. Father António Vieira was born in Lisbon in 1608, but was raised and educated in the Jesuit school of Salvador and died in the city in 1697. His erudite sermons have earned him the title of best writer of the Portuguese language in the Baroque era.
After the independence of Brazil (1822), Salvador continued to play an important role in Brazilian literature. Significant 19th century writers associated with the city include Romantic poet Castro Alves (1847-1871) and diplomat Ruy Barbosa (1849-1923). In the 20th century, Bahia-born Jorge Amado (1912-2001), although not born in Salvador, helped popularize the culture of the city around the world in novels such as Jubiabá, Dona Flor e Seus Dois Maridos, and Tenda dos Milagres, the settings of which are in Salvador.

[edit] Religion

Former Jesuit church of Salvador (17th century), now cathedral.
In Salvador, religion is a major contact point between European and African influences. Salvador was the seat of the first bishopric in colonial Brazil (established 1551), and the first bishop, Pero Fernandes Sardinha, arrived already in 1552. The Jesuits, led by the Manuel da Nóbrega, also arrived in the 16th century and worked in converting the Indigenous peoples of the region to Roman Catholicism.
Most enslaved Africans in Bahia were brought from Sub-Saharan Africa, especially the Yoruba-speaking nation (Iorubá or Nagô in Portuguese) from present-day Nigeria. The enslaved were forced to convert to Roman Catholicism, but their original religion - Candomblé - has survived in spite of prohibitions and persecutions. The enslaved Africans managed to preserve their religion by attributing the names and characteristics of their Candomblé deities to Catholic saints with similar qualities. Hence, as Christians once transformed Pagan deities into lesser gods, the saints, to accommodate the Pagans within Christianity, enslaved Africans in Bahia ingeniously transformed their faiths into a syncretic form of religion that still attempts to please both their own roots & the faith imposed by their masters & those caught in between both traditions. Thus, up to today, even nominal Catholics take part in Candomblé rituals in the terreirosor "centros". Candomblé is based on the cult of the Orishas (Orixás), like Obatala (Oxalá), father of humankind; Ogoun (Ogum), god of the war and iron; Yemanja (Iemanjá), goddess of the sea, rivers and lakes. These religious entities have been syncretised with some Catholic entities. For instance, Salvador's Feast of Bonfim, celebrated in January, is dedicated to both Our Lord of Bonfim (Jesus Christ) and Oxalá. Another important feast is the Feast de Yemanja every February 2nd, on the shores of the borough of Rio Vermelho in Salvador, on the day the church celebrates Our Lady of the Navigators. December 8, Immaculate Conception Day for Catholics, is also commonly dedicated to Yemanja' with votive offerings made in the sea throughout the Brazilian coast.

[edit] Cuisine

Local cuisine of Salvador.
The local cuisine, spicy and based on seafood (shrimps, fish), strongly relies on typically African ingredients and techniques, and is much appreciated throughout Brazil and internationally. The most typical ingredient is azeite-de-dendê, an oil extracted from a palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) brought from West Africa to Brazil during colonial times.
Traditional dishes include caruru, vatapá, acarajé, bobó-de-camarão, moqueca baiana, and abará. Some of these dishes, like the acarajé and abará, are also used as offerings in Candomblé rituals. An acarajé is basically a deep-fried "bread" made from mashed beans from which the skins have been removed (reputedly feijão fradinho "black-eyed peas" but in reality almost always the less expensive brown beans so ubiquitous in Bahia). But Salvador is not only typical food. Who comes here also has a large number of restaurants specialized on international cuisine. There also places that serve dishes from other states of Brazil, especially from Minas Gerais and the Northeast region.

[edit] Capoeira

Capoeira in Salvador.
Capoeira is a unique mix of dance and martial art of Afro-Brazilian origin, combining agile dance moves with unarmed combat techniques. Its origins go back to the times of slavery, and Salvador is considered the centre of origin of the modern capoeira branches. In the first half of the 20th century, Salvador-born masters Mestre Bimba and Mestre Pastinha founded capoeira schools and helped standartise and popularise the art in Brazil and the world.
Capoeira practices are accompanied by special music and songs. Musical instruments used in capoeira music include the caxixi, atabaque and berimbau, percussion instruments of African origin. Capoeira has moved from the senzalas and quilombos of Brazil to New York, Berlin, Australia, and just about every place in between.

[edit] Museums
In ancient Greece there was the museion, the place where “the knowledge of mankind was kept”. From this source, which was dedicated to muses and considered a temple, the Greek people took the knowledge necessary to improve their quality of life. The artistic, cultural and social heritage of Salvador is preserved there. From Museu de Arte da Bahia (MAB), which is the oldest in the Stae, to Museu Náutico, the newest, the first capital of Brazil preserve unique pieces of history. Every museum in the sate is an unusual journey. The collection have such an immense symbolical value that no financial figure could ever measure.
Even so, the importance of Salvador's museums has drawn the interest of experts from Brazil and abroad. There we can find valuable pieces of religious art, ornamental items from the old manors and also objects that belonged to the old families and public figures of the state. The Arte Sacra and Abelardo Rodrigues museums are must - see programs. They both have the biggest sacra art collection in the country. Another obligatory tour is to Museu de Arte da Bahia.

Nowadays, there are about 50 museums in Salvador, of which 25 are functioning normally.
Museu de Arte da Bahia has paintings, Chinese porcelain, furniture and sacra images from the 17th and 18th centuries. Museu Costa Pinto has private – owned items such as, pieces of art, crystal objects, furniture from the 18th and 19th centuries, tapestry, sacra pieces and Chinese porcelain. The golden jewelry and the 27 ornamental silver buckles are the most precious in the entire collection.
Another important museum is Museu da Cidade, where many items that help to preserve the heritage of old Salvador are kept. There we can find thematic objects that belonged to public personalities in the state like dolls, orixá statues and religious images. There is also an art gallery located inside of the museums. There is also Fundação Casa de Jorge Amado, with pictures, objects and the life’s stories of the author of memorable novels that portray old Bahia like, Gabriela – Cravo e Canela, Dona Flor e Seus Dois Maridos, O País do Carnaval and Tieta do Agreste.
Some churches and monasteries also have museums located in their premises. Examples of this are the Carmo da Misericórdia and São Bento Museums. After the renovation of the Forts, were created Museu Náutico, in Forte de Santo Antonio da Barra (Farol da Barra) and Museu da Comunicação, in Forte São Diogo. Other important museums that are scattered through Salvador are: Museu do Cacau, Museu geológico do Estado, Museu tempostal, Solar do Ferrão, Museu de Arte Antiga e Popular Henriqueta M Catharino, Museu Eugênio Teixeira Leal and Museu das Portas do Carmo.

[edit] Carnival/Carnaval

Salvador's Carnival is the biggest in the world.
According to the Guinness Book of Records, the carnival or Carnaval of Salvador de Bahia is the biggest street party on the planet. For an entire week, almost 2 million people celebrate throughout 25 kilometers (15 miles) of streets, avenues and squares. The direct organisation of the party involves the participation of 25 thousand people. Its dimensions are gigantic. Salvador receives an average of 800 thousand visitors from municipalities located as far as 150 kilometers (93 miles) away, from several States of Brazil and from a number of other countries (Europe, USA and many others).
The music played during Carnaval includes Axé and Samba-reggae. Many "blocos" participate in Carnaval, the "blocos afros" like Malé Debalé, Olodum and Filhos de Gandhi being the most famous of them. Carnival is heavily policed. Stands with five or six seated police officers are erected everywhere and the streets are constantly patrolled by police groups moving in single file.
The three Carnival Circuits are:
The Campo Grande - Praça Castro Alves Circuit, also called the “Osmar” Circuit, or simply the “Avenidas”;
The Barra - Ondina Circuit, also called the “Dodô” Circuit;
The Pelourinho Circuit, also called the “Batatinha” Circuit.

[edit] Funk and Bahia Funk Dances
Funk has become a musical genre in Brazil that exemplifies how many influences - in and out of Brazil - merged with Brazilian culture in the 20th century to form a new hybrid sound. Funk originated as a black American form of music that started in the 1960s and included artists like James Brown and The Funk Brothers. The music spread across the world finding its way to Brazil, showing that North American and black North American influences were already conspicuous in the musical cultures of Brazilians. [13] In travelling to Brazil, it reached Rio de Janeiro, a city "that played a key role in the soul and funk phenomena". [14]

Anfiteatro do Parque da Cidade de Salvador.
Although funk was embraced by many parts of Brazil, its sound would eventually become localized so the music would differ from city to city. This difference can be viewed with the funk scenes in Rio de Janeiro and Salvador. The music and the environment are all representative of the city where one listens to funk music. For instance, the music played in Salvador at a Black Bahia Funk Ball is more American than its counterpart in Rio de Janeiro. Music material from Rio, which sells reasonably well around Rio, is poorly known in Salvador and, in any case, held to be inferior and "less modern" than funk sung in English. [15] Another difference can be seen with the funk dancehalls. The Ball incorporates the entire setting, which entails the attire, the slang, the specific way of dancing break, the decoration, the organization of permanent dance groups. [16] These dancehalls are a place for everyone to come together to have fun before the start of another work week. Even the dance rivalries are not true rivalries in the sense that the dance groups do not physically fight one another. The group members do all their battling on the dance floor, using their dance moves as their weapons to demonstrate their dance skill and superiority.

[edit] Theatre
Salvador is home to a vibrant theater scene. Among the many theaters are: Castro Alves Theatre (TCA), Sala do Côro (mini Theatre in Castro Alves Theatre), IRDEB Theatre (TV Educativa), SENAC Theatre(Pelourinho), ICÉIA Theatre, Museu Eugênio Teixeira Leal Theatre(Pelourinho), Barra Theatre, Espaço Xisto Theatre, Maria Betânia Theatre, Jorge Amado Theatre, Diplomata Theatre, Sesi Rio Vermelho Theatre, Vila Velha Theatre, XVIII Theatre, ISBA Theatre, Santo Antônio Theatre, ACBEU Theatre, Anchieta Theatre, Nazaré Theatre, ICBA Theatre, Gamboa Theatre, Gregório de Mattos Theatre, Módulo Theatre, Miguel Santana Theatre, Cultural Theatre, Cine Casa do Comércio Theatre, Dias Gomes Theatre (Sindicato dos Comerciários), Plataforma Theatre.

[edit] Human Rights & Gay Rights
Salvador is also home to the oldest, continuous gay rights and human rights organization in Brazil, the Grupo Gay da Bahia (GGB). Established by Dr. Luiz Mott in 1980 and currently headed by Marcelo Cerqueira, GGB has played a central role in the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender equality movement both in Bahia and across Brazil, and has helped to educate the local population on HIV and AIDS prevention and human rights abuses. The Gruppo Gay da Bahia has been active and organizes weekly gatherings in the old quarter Pelourinho (Historic Centre of Salvador). Salvador's gay pride parade is now one of the largest in Brazil, approximately 300,000 people.[17]
The city offers many options: 4 gay night clubs (Off Club, Tropical, Originale and Queens); 6 gay saunas (Esgrima, Sauna Rio's, Sauna Campos, Sauna Olympus, Sauna Phoenix and Thermas Persona); gay bars (Beco dos Artistas, Da Vinci, Babalotin, and many others);[18] gay beaches (Porto da Barra and Praia dos Artistas).[19]

[edit] Infrastructure

[edit] International Airport
Deputado Luís Eduardo Magalhães International Airport is located in an area of more than 6 million square meters between sand dunes and native vegetation. The road route to the airport has already become one of the city’s main scenic attractions. and lies 20 km (12 mi) north of Downtown Salvador. In 2007, the airport handled 5,920,573 passengers and 91,043 aircraft movements,[20] placing it 5th busiest airport in Brazil in terms of passengers. The airport’s use has been growing at an average of 14% a year and now is responsible for more than 30% of passenger movement in Brazil’s Northeast. Nearly 35 thousand people circulate daily through the passenger terminal. The airport generates more than 16 thousand direct and indirect jobs, to serve a daily average of over 10 thousand passengers, 250 takeoffs and landings of 100 domestic and 16 international flights.
In addition to domestic and regional services, the airport has non-stop flights to Lisbon, Madrid, Frankfurt, Montevideo, London, Santiago, Buenos Aires, Asunción and Miami. Its IATA airport code is SSA and it is the sixth busiest airport in the country, the first in northeastern Brazil, behind Congonhas International, Guarulhos International, Juscelino Kubitschek International, Santos Dumont Regional and Galeão International.

[edit] Port

Port of Salvador.
With cargo volume that grows year after year following the same economic development rhythm implemented in the State, the Port of Salvador, located in the Bahia de Todos os Santos, holds status as the port with the highest movement of containers of the North/Northeast and the second-leading fruit exporter in Brazil. The port's facilities operate from 8am to noon and from 1h30am to 5h30pm.
The ability to handle high shipping volume has positioned the port of Salvador for new investments in technological modernization, and the port is noted for implementing a high level of operational flexibility and competitive rates. The goal of port officials is to offer the necessary infrastructure for the movement of goods, while simultaneously meeting the needs of international importers and exporters.

[edit] Metro
Salvador currently has a Metro System under construction. The Metro is projected to have two lines and will be integrated with bus and rail services. The first stage of the metro was to have been ready in 2006 (or, with delays, by early 2007).

ACM Avenue in Salvador.

[edit] Highways
The BR-101 and BR-116 federal highways cross Bahia from north to south, connecting Salvador to the rest of the country. At the Feira de Santana junction, take the BR-324 state highway. The capital of Bahia is served by several coach companies from almost every Brazilian state.

[edit] Distances
Belo Horizonte: 1430 km (888 mi);
Brasília: 1540 km (956 mi);
Rio de Janeiro: 1730 km (1074 mi);
São Paulo: 1960 km (1217 mi).

[edit] Neighborhoods

Barra Neighborhood in South Zone.
Salvador is divided into a number of distinct neighborhoods, with the most well known districts being Pelourinho, the Historic Centre, and Downtown, all located in West Zone.

Modern buildings in Campo Grande (left) and Vitória (right) Neighborhood.
Barra, with its Farol da Barra, beautiful beaches and which is where one of the Carnival circuits begins, located in South Zone. Vitória, a neighborhood with many high rise buildings, is located in South Zone. Campo Grande, with its Dois de Julho Square and the monument to Bahia's independence, is also located in South Zone, as is Graça, an important residential area. Ondina, with Salvador's Zoobotanical Garden and the site where the Barra-Ondina Carnival circuit ends, is also a neighborhood in the South Zone.
Itaigara, Pituba, Horto Florestal, Caminho das Árvores, Loteamento Aquárius, Brotas, Stiep, Costa Azul, Armação, Jaguaribe and Stella Maris are the wealthiest neighborhoods in the East Zone. Rio Vermelho, a neighborhood with a rich architectural history and numerous restaurants and bars, is located in the South Zone. Itapoã - known throughout Brazil as the home of Vinicius de Moraes and for being the setting of the song "Tarde em Itapoã" - is located in East Zone. The Northwest area of the city in along the Bay of All Saints- also known as Cidade Baixa ("Lower city") - contains the impoverished suburban neighborhoods of Periperi, Paripe, Lobato, Liberdade, Nova Esperança, and Calçada.

[edit] Sports

Fonte Nova Stadium.
Salvador provides visitors and residents with various sport activities. The Fonte Nova Stadium, also known as Estádio Octávio Mangabeira is a football stadium inaugurated on January 28, 1951 in Salvador, Bahia, with a maximum capacity of 66,080 people. The stadium is owned by the Bahia government, and is the home ground of Esporte Clube Bahia. Its formal name honors Octávio Cavalcanti Mangabeira, a civil engineer, journalist, and former Bahia state governor from 1947 to 1954. The stadium is nicknamed Fonte Nova, because it is located at Ladeira das Fontes das Pedras.Esporte Clube Bahia and Esporte Clube Vitória are Salvador's main football teams. Esporte Clube Bahia has won 2 national titles - Brazil's Cup in 1959 and the Brazilian League in 1988 - while Esporte Clube Vitória was a runner up in the Brazilian league in 1993. Salvador is one of 18 candidates cities to host games of the 2014 FIFA World Cup awarded to Brazil.
Salvador has two large green areas for the practice of golf. Cajazeiras Golf and Country Club has a 18-hole course, instructors, caddies and equipment for rent. Itapuã Golf club, located in the area of the Sofitel Hotel, has a 9-hole course, equipment store, caddies and clubs for rent. Tennis is very popular among Salvador's elites, with a great number of players and tournaments in the city’s private clubs. Brasil Open, the country’s most important tournament happens every year in Bahia.

[edit] Human Development

Historic Centre of Salvador.
The human development of Salvador varies greatly by locality, reflecting the city's spatial segregation and vast socioeconomic inequalities. There are neighborhoods that had very high human development indexes in 2000 (equal to or greater than the indexes of some Scandinavian countries), but also those in the lower range (in line with, for example, North Africa).[21]



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1 comment:

Bahia Tour said...

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